Saturday, June 30, 2012

Plasmolysis through the effect of Isotonic for std 10 to 12


Practical-2
AIM :-
Study of Plasmolysis through the effect of Isotonic, Hypotonic as well as Hypertonic Solutions
of Sodium Chloride and  Potassium Chloride on Mounted Epidermal Cells of Tradescantia leaf.
INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS : -
Slide, Cover slip, Microscope, Dropper, Blotting paper, Tradescantia leaf, Water, Glycerine, NaCL solution, KCL solution.
Plasmolysis through the effect of Isotonic for std 10 to 12

Conclusion :-
This a kind of exosmosis. When living plant cell is placed  in a concentrated solution of sugar or salt plasmolysis is induced in them. Normally living cells are turgid as concentrated of vacuolar sap is lower than the surrounding solution water from the cell starts moving outside through exosmosis.

Sunday, June 17, 2012

Oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis. Std 10 to 12


AIM :  To show that oxygen is evolved during photosynthesis.


PRINCIPLE :  During photosynthesis photolysis of water takes place  and oxygen is released.
Equation for oxygen evolved during photosynthesis.
MATERIALS       :  Beaker, funnel, test tube, twig of Hydrilla, water.
  
Oxygen evolved during Photosynthesis

Bubble comes out 

Oxygen evolved during photosynthesis
Result :
Air bubbles released from the cut end of plant twigs move up through the funnel and get collected in the test tube.
Conclusion :
The oxygen produced during photosynthesis moves up in thee form of bubbles and getts collected in the test tube.
Application : 
During photosynthesis oxygen evolved and released in the atmosphere. It can be shown to the students by the above experiment.           

Photosynthesis, Plant converts solar energy into chemical energy.


 To demonstrate that the light is necessary for photosynthesis.


AIM  :  To demonstrate that the light is necessary for photosynthesis.


PRINCIPLE :  During the process of photosynthesis plant converts solar energy into chemical energy ( glucose ). This experiment indicates that without light, food cannot be synthesized.

MATERIALS :  Ganong’s screen, a twig, iodine, ventilated box,  etc.
Plant with leaf

Photosynthesis, light is necessary.

Cobalt Chloride paper on leaf.

Sun light makes Photosynthesis process.
Result (Observation) :
The positive iodine test shows presence of starch only is the region where letter “A” was cut in the black paper.
Conclusion :
The final product of the photosynthesis is starch. It is found in the leaf only when all the essential factors for the photosynthesis are available to the plant. The iodine test shown that starch is manufactured in the region exposed to the light, while the region of the leaf which was covered with black paper does not show any starch.
Application :
From this experiment we can demonstrate to the students that for the synthesis of starch, light is necessary.





Saturday, June 16, 2012

Stomata in Lower Epidermis of leaf, Biology std 10 to 12

To study the stomata present in the epidermis of leaf by preparing a temporary slide.

AIM :   To study the stomata present in the epidermis of leaf by preparing a temporary slide.

PRINCIPLE :  As the lower epidermis is not directly exposed to sunlight it contains more number of stomata. This reduces the rate of transpiration.
MATERIALS :  Leaf of Hibiscus, Nagervel (betel leaves) or Maize, slides, forceps, scalpel or blade, Microscope

Lower and Upper Epidermis of Nagarvel leaf.

Scratch of Nagarvel leaf on Lower epidermis

Stomata view in Microscope.

Stomata viewed in Microscope

Enlarge view of  stomata.
Result
Maximum number of stomata are visible as the lower epidermis has more number of stomata. In Hibiscus and Nagarvel the guard cells of stomata are been shaped while in Maize they are dumb-bell shaped.
Conclusion :
By this method stomata can be seen and counted under the microscope.
Application :
This is an easy method to show the stomata to the students.



Wednesday, June 8, 2011

Wilmot’s bubbler Light Intensity, Light Quality and Concentration of Carbon dioxide on the Rate of photosynthesis


Study of the Effect of Light Intensity, Light Quality and Concentration of Carbon dioxide on the Rate of photosynthesis using Wilmott’s bubbler
AIM :-
To study the effect of light intensity, light quality and concentration of carbon dioxide on the rate of photosynthesis using Wilmott’s bubbler
INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS
Wilmott’s bubbler, Cellophane papers of red, blue and green colours,
Hydrilla (fresh plants), Vaseline, Sodium bicarbonate, water
Experiment measuring the rate of Photosynthesis by Wilmott’s Bubbler
Observation table fot Wilmot;s bubbler Experiment
AIM 2 :-
To study the effect of light quality on the rate of photosynthesis.
INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS
Wilmott’s bubbler, Cellophane papers of red, blue and green colours,
Hydrilla (fresh plants), Vaseline, Sodium bicarbonate, water
Red Cellophane paper Experiments
Blue Cellophane paper Experiments

Green Cellophane paper Experiments

Observation table with cellophane paper
Wilmot's Bubbler Video
Study of the Effect of Light Intensity, Light Quality and Concentration of Carbon dioxide on the Rate of photosynthesis






Study the Influence of Heat, Chemicals on the Release of Pigments from Root and other Tissues of Plant.


Study the Influence of Heat (temperature) and Chemicals on the Release of Pigments from Root and other Tissues of Plant.
AIM :-       
To study the influence of heat (temperature) and chemicals on the release of pigments from root and other tissues of plant.
INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS :-
Test tubes, cork borer, blade,  beakers, measuring cylinder, thermometer, burner,
Fresh beat roots, alcohol, formalin, benzene, distilled water, ice cubes.
Beat Root experiment shows influence of heat and chemicals
Influence of heat and chemicals on Beat root experiment Observation table
Influence of heat and chemicals on releases of Pigments from Beat root and other tissues of Plants
Video Presentation




Blood cell counting biology experiment for medical science


Counting of different types of Blood Cells under Microscope
AIM :- To count different types of blood cells under microscope.
INSTRUMENTS AND MATERIALS :- Slide, Pricking needle, Microscope, Cotton swab, Spirit, Leishman blue stain. 

Apparatus for Blood cell counting 

Blood cell counting with microscope
Blood cell counting Observation table
Blood cell counting experiment Video